How to Qualify a Vessel Appraiser

The shipping industry has been bobbing along ever since the financial crash of 2018. There is, of course, the expected market sector rotation with certain asset classes coming in and getting out of favor; at present, dry bulk vessels are cash flow positive, containerships rather weak, and tankers and offshore assets downright miserable. Following the whims of the freight market, values of ships fluctuate up and down; when certain sectors are out of favor, there have been sales on occasion at eye-popping low levels – and when the market improves, there may even be a chance for a shipowner’s favorite game, the famous “flipping of assets” to monetize on asset appreciation.

While the shipping market keeps doing what it does best – being volatile, shipping banks and capital for shipping are getting even tighter and costlier, which impacts not only vessel asset prices but also the volume of sale and purchase of vessels in the secondary market. For instance, at present, given the state of the tanker market, there have been months without the sale of tanker vessels in certain asset classes (there have been almost six months without the sale of modern VLCC, suezmax, aframax, LR2, MR2 and MR1 tankers that were not between affiliated parties or not subject to financing), which makes pricing and valuing of vessels all more complicated. All along, regulatory requirements keep piling on the industry (IMO2020 is the latest concern), while new technologies and innovation keep raising the technological risks for the industry.

Commercial considerations aside, the current state of the market is impacting not only vessel valuations but also the process of arriving at an accurate (and, some even say honest) vessel valuation. The standard definition of Fair Market Value (FMV) is premised upon the existence of a liquid secondary market; when the last comparable sale was six months ago, it might as well it had been six years ago given the volatility of the industry. As a result, delivering an accurate vessel appraisal when there is dearth of data, it can be considered an “art” at the very least, or worse, the subject of intense scrutiny of not only the outcome of the valuation but also of the process of the valuation, including questioning the qualification of the vessel valuator themselves. Valuation is not just the outcome, the value of something, but also, the qualification and the standards of the valuation process as well – the integrity of the process.

When times were easier for shipping… STS Leeuwin II in Fremantle, Perth, Australia. Image credit: Karatzas Images

Standard industry practice is that vessel valuations are commissioned from shipbrokers on the assumption that they have their finger on the pulse of the market. On the other hand, one has to keep in mind that there are concerns of the integrity of the process of deriving a number, especially when data is old and have to be “interpreted” and judgement comes into play. And, as uncomfortable as it is talking about it, there are conflicts as shipbrokers make much more money on commissions by selling vessels than providing valuations for vessels, thus, they may ensure when providing valuations to ingratiate themselves to the party that likely will give them more sale-and-purchase (“S&P”) business in the future. There are cases where shipbrokers and vessel valuators in the same  shipbrokerage company are often at odds, given that they have conflicting interests: vessel valuations are a loss leader for many shipbrokerage companies (at a typical $1,000 per desktop valuation) while a commission of 1% on the sale of the same vessel can generate a much higher bonus. One does not want to upset the owner / seller of a vessel with a tight valuation of their property.

Of course, there have been online platforms whereby automated vessel valuations can be provided instantly via an algorithmic process. Such an automated approach would presume there is no bias, such as un-intentional personal judgement of interpreting the data or intentional skewing the results of the valuation to favor a certain party. While such a presumptions seem credible, on the other hand, one has to be aware that the algorithmic process is backward looking (historical data with historical bias), and still it has to depend on judgement as certain sales should be adjusted or disqualified since they may not be true comparable sales (judicial sales, auctions, subject to financing, sale-and-leaseback transactions, etc) In our experience, and convenience aside, algorithmic valuations overall do not provide much higher accuracy than qualified, unbiased actual vessel appraisers.

As we have discussed elsewhere in previous post, there are also additional valuation methods to be considered than the market comparable approach, such as the income approach method and the replacement cost method. However, such methodology often gets beyond the realm of expertise of a shipbroker as concepts of finance, economics, accounting, and possibly taxation may come into play.  We have seen in the past, a partner at a shipbrokerage shop googling for Net Present Value (NPV) formulas in order to provide an income approach for a vessel valuation; we feel disheartened for such practices and for people being so cavalier with asset values; and, coincidentally, we would love to see such partner explain themselves in a court of law under oath in a scenario of litigation, where they would had to explain their methodology – when it’s clear they lacked any fundamental understanding for the valuation process. There is clearly legal liability for poorly prepared valuations.

Reflections on watery matters… Image credit: Karatzas Images

Most U.S. banks, leasing companies, commercial asset finance and equipment finance companies have now raised the bar for the firms and the people providing valuations; as such firms have a fiduciary duty to ensure that they look diligently after the money of their depositors and investors, it would make absolute sense that whoever is providing ship valuations has to meet certain academic standards, are subject to continuing education and that they have to abide by a set of professional rules and code of ethics. “Gray lenders” such as credit funds and other investment firms active in shipping seem to keep working with their preferred brokers, but this can be a liability claim in the waiting. The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) have been known to have taken an extra look in the last few years at certain publicly listed entities and their vessel valuation methodology and accounting practices. When investors lose money with their shipping investments, it’s hard to see what would stop them from pursuing legally asset managers for not credentialing properly their vessel valuation practices.

We do not want to be warmongers but in an environment of higher regulations for banks and investors, as well as people in shipping, one should be surprised to see how vessel appraisals are delegated as a matter of favor or a matter of inconvenience. Reality should be expected to soon catch up.

The sponsor of this blog, Karatzas Marine Advisors & Co., is pleased to announce that they have taken the matter of ship valuations or vessel valuations or ship valuations or ship appraisals – however valuation of marine assets is called, to a higher level. The firm employs Accredited Senior Appraisers (ASA) for Machinery and Technical Specialties who have met high academic standards, have passed qualifying exams, and most importantly, have to strictly abide to an extensive code of ethics. The firm also employs Fellows of the Institute of Chartered Shipbrokers (FICS) who have passed extensive exams and had to demonstrate years of experience in the maritime industry to qualify for such accreditation. The firm is a member of BIMCO and the Baltic Exchange among several professional memberships.  The firm also employs Ivy League MBAs and graduates who can provide an income approach valuation without having to google the NPV formula!


© 2013 – present Basil M Karatzas & Karatzas Marine Advisors & Co.  All Rights Reserved.

IMPORTANT DISCLAIMER:  Access to this blog signifies the reader’s irrevocable acceptance of this disclaimer. No part of this blog can be reproduced by any means and under any circumstances, whatsoever, in whole or in part, without proper attribution or the consent of the copyright and trademark holders of this website.Whilst every effort has been made to ensure that information herewithin has been received from sources believed to be reliable and such information is believed to be accurate at the time of publishing, no warranties or assurances whatsoever are made in reference to accuracy or completeness of said information, and no liability whatsoever will be accepted for taking or failing to take any action upon any information contained in any part of this website.  Thank you for the consideration.

 

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Basil M Karatzas Has Been Appointed Liquidation Trustee for the Sale of Two Pelagic Tuna Purse Seiner Vessels

Basil M. Karatzas                                                          FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE  One World Financial Center, 30th Floor                                                                         200 Liberty Street                                                                                                              New York, NY 10281 USA                                                                                              Liquidation Trustee

Basil M Karatzas Has Been Appointed Liquidation Trustee for the Sale of Two Pelagic Tuna Purse Seiner Vessels

Majuro, Republic of Marshall Islands, April 28th, 2018Basil M Karatzas has been appointed Liquidation Trustee by the High Court of the Republic of Marshall Islands for the sale of two pelagic tuna purse seiner vessels F/V ‘Fong Seong 668’ and F/V “Fong Seong 696’ (the “Vessels”). The Vessels have been under arrest since November 2017 in the Majuro Lagoon. Under the High Court’s order, the Vessels are to be sold in the immediate future under the direction of the Liquidation Trustee.

On the announcement of the court appointment, Basil M Karatzas stated: “We are delighted to be designated the Liquidation Trustee for the sale of these two well-regarded and good performers of pelagic purse seiner tuna fishing vessels. We are looking forward to exercising diligently our duties as Liquidation Trustee and maximizing value for all parties involved. We are honored that our known expertise as shipbrokers with exceptional track-record of maximizing value and having consummated impeccably difficult transactions in several segments of the maritime industry have been acknowledged via this appointment by the honorable High Court of the Republic of the Marshall Islands.”

About the Liquidation Trustee: Basil M Karatzas is the Founder and CEO of Karatzas Marine Advisors & Co, a NY-based shipping finance and shipbrokerage firm. Mr Karatzas has worked extensively with financial institutions and shipowners in the fields of shipping and shipping finance, and has executed complicated transactions including vessel sales under duress, vessel auctions, sales via insolvency administrator, etc, and also arranging for debtor-in-possession financing, etc Mr Karatzas is an alumnus of Harvard Business School and the Jones Graduate School of Management at Rice University, a member of the Baltic Exchange in the UK, a Senior Accredited Appraiser (ASA) with the American Society of Appraisers, Chapter of New York, and a Fellow of the Institute of Chartered Shipbrokers in the UK.

About the Liquidation Process: The fishing vessels will be prepared and offered for sale under the direction of the Liquidation Trustee. To learn more about the Vessels and the terms of the sale, one may contact the Liquidation Trustee via email at < info@bmkaratzas.com >. Additional information on the vessels and the liquidation process are provided at www.karatzas.auction

About the Vessels: Fishing vessels F/V “Fong Seong 668” and F/V “Fong Seong 696” are pelagic purse seiner fishing vessels of appr. 90 m in length, registered in Vanuatu, and engaged in the purse seiner method of fishing of tuna, and registered under the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC).

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Press release was originally posted on the judicial sale website.

To download the press release, please click here!

Image of pelagic tuna purse seiner fishing vessel FV ‘Fong Seong 696’ in the Majuro Lagoon, the Republic of Marshall Islands. Image credit: Karatzas Auctions

© 2013 – present Basil M Karatzas & Karatzas Marine Advisors & Co.  All Rights Reserved.

IMPORTANT DISCLAIMER:  Access to this blog signifies the reader’s irrevocable acceptance of this disclaimer. No part of this blog can be reproduced by any means and under any circumstances, whatsoever, in whole or in part, without proper attribution or the consent of the copyright and trademark holders of this website.Whilst every effort has been made to ensure that information herewithin has been received from sources believed to be reliable and such information is believed to be accurate at the time of publishing, no warranties or assurances whatsoever are made in reference to accuracy or completeness of said information, and no liability whatsoever will be accepted for taking or failing to take any action upon any information contained in any part of this website.  Thank you for the consideration.

PR – Basil M Karatzas Appointed Liquidation Trustee

Thoughts from Posidonia 2018

It’s an even-numbered year and it’s June, which – for those in shipping – can only mean one thing: it’s Posidonia time! And, Posidonia it was, the 50th occasion of the international shipping community convening to Athens for the industry’s flagship event.

The cold facts: it has been reported that more than 100 countries have been represented, more than 1,800 exhibitors showcased their trades and more than 22,000 visitors attended the event with an estimate of half of those visitors originating outside Greece. No one could doubt, based on such enormous numbers, the significance of the event to the maritime industry, and, by association, the importance of Greece and the Greek shipping community to the maritime industry. Posidonia has been a truly “must attend” shipping event for its size, the wealth of market info available, and, this being Greece, for its fun, party scene and the great weather!

Having attended Posidonia for numerous times now, one can get a “feel” of the market and observe a lot by just watching, in the immortal words of Yogi Berra. Here have been a few of our observations:

In June 2008, when the shipping markets were white hot and the BDI was topping 12000 points, the Posidonia attendance was standing at just 16,000 visitors; now, ten years later and the BDI at a tenth of its former glory (presently appr 1300 points), the Posidonia attendance was higher by almost 36%. It does seem that Posidonia 2018 was marginally better attended than Posidonia 2016 which was better attended than 2014, which was … Posidonia once again proves that it’s an exhibition with eternal appeal, in good and bad times, where participants congregate to seek market intelligence.

Given the state of the freight market in the last decade, there has been no exuberance this time around with the by-now famous “Posidonia party scene”, since long are the times when company parties were esteemed by the number of Russian models in attendance. However, we have noticed that there have been many more corporate events and receptions than in previous times, quite often discreet and with less noise; mostly dinner receptions where guests could discuss market developments under the full moon in the Greek summer breeze with a drink in their hands. Seeing greater social activity but of less noise and of higher caliber has been an encouraging observation, in our opinion, as it’s a sign that the market gets back to fundamentals and away from the pretense of the past times.

Although freight markets are weak, and frankly the crude tanker freight rates downright painful, we noticed an air of solid perseverance and mild enthusiasm. Posidonia traditionally has been one of the most optimistic conferences in shipping, in our opinion; however, this time we did not notice vainglorious enthusiasm of “bring it on” but rather guarded optimism that since we have survived these terrible markets so far, there is little else that can shock us. Things are getting better, or at least they will get better. Probably this weird mix of sarcasm, resilience and enthusiasm is another sign that the market is reverting back to the fundamentals and logic and away from unfounded enthusiasm and speculation.

And, what a better sign of speculation than newbuilding orders? While in the good times Posidonia was a time of announcing of massive newbuilding orders – just to keep up with the Joneses – this time around, there barely have been any newbuilding announcement; for sure, there have been a couple of them, mostly from well established shipowners and with an LNG focus, but the majority of the market has been keeping clear of new orders. Probably another encouraging observation that the market is slowly shifting back to fundamentals.

Newbuilding orders cannot take place without plentiful and cheap financing, and speaking of the devil, there barely were any financiers in the whole greater Athens region! In the past, shipping banks hosting Posidonia parties used to be a parallel event of its own; this time around, just a handful of banks held discreet dinner parties for their clients and closed advisors with little outward attention. And, even more importantly, a complete dearth of equity fund, hedge funds, mezz funds, credit funds, alternative capital funds and other representatives of “master of the universe” species… Most of the financiers we saw were traditional long-term shipping market players who have been through the ups and downs of the industry a couple of times. Gone were the opportunistic or speculative investors who were de rigueur in previous Posidonia, another sign of the market’s efforts to revert to the mean. On the funny side of things, shipping financiers seem to be getting special attention as shipping finance is very hard to come by these days, and shipping financiers are as precious as the apple in one’s eye these days.

Shipping finance has been a hot topic of the exhibition, as one would expect. Despite selective activity, most shipping banks keep exiting the industry and dumping shipping loans, while the cost of capital keeps going up for most, not to mention the increasing interest rates that pose an additional risk to the industry at a time of soft freight rates. Chinese leasing has been a strengthening trend as well as preference by shipping banks for corporate loans (instead of asset-based ship mortgages), while institutional investors kept bearing the deriding scorn of “dumb money” in shipping and the sinners of a tonnage oversupplied market.

But the critical topic of Posidonia 2018 has been the upcoming regulations for fuels and emissions; and, here, we left the exhibition as uncertain as we were when landing in Athens at the beginning of Posidonia. Multiple panels and presentations and opinionated discussions on emissions, but we drew the conclusion that no-one really has a crystal ball on the subject; the possible outcomes ranged from this being a non-event (postponement into the future) to being a catastrophic event (too costly and not enough volumes clean fuels) that would reset the industry to this being the greatest thing in shipping in the last decade (accelerated scrapping and disappearance of less-capitalized shipowners.) A wide range of opinions indeed that render decision-making in such a challenging environment not dear for the meek in the heart; but again, that’s how money is made.

The Greek shipping community still stands strong, and, in general, in the news in the last few years, especially when it comes to opportunistic vessel acquisitions in the secondary market. Despite market challenges, Greek shipowners keep buying ships (occasionally even at high financing costs), and this purchasing activity contrasts them to other shipping nations that have been less active, or even net sellers of vessels. Thus, a few self-congratulatory remarks were to be expected here and there.

Posidonia is for sure the shipping event to attend; so much info to be learned as the as the vastness of the big ocean itself!

Posidonia 2018. Image credit: Karatzas Images

© 2013 – present Basil M Karatzas & Karatzas Marine Advisors & Co.  All Rights Reserved.

IMPORTANT DISCLAIMER:  Access to this blog signifies the reader’s irrevocable acceptance of this disclaimer. No part of this blog can be reproduced by any means and under any circumstances, whatsoever, in whole or in part, without proper attribution or the consent of the copyright and trademark holders of this website.Whilst every effort has been made to ensure that information herewithin has been received from sources believed to be reliable and such information is believed to be accurate at the time of publishing, no warranties or assurances whatsoever are made in reference to accuracy or completeness of said information, and no liability whatsoever will be accepted for taking or failing to take any action upon any information contained in any part of this website.  Thank you for the consideration.

Can money still be made in shipping by flipping ships?

Unlike other capital assets whose value depreciates over the economic life of the asset, ships are known to appreciate in value if markets are strong. When freight markets are exuberant, the value (price) of ships can appreciate as investors expect stronger cash slow streams and higher earnings. It’s not unheard of ships having doubled or trebled in value in a matter of years, generating exceptional windfalls for their owners.

It is said that much more money in shipping has been made by timing the purchase and sale of ships by an owner and benefiting from the asset appreciation rather than by generating operating profits. And, conceptually, this is true: over the long term of a business cycle, as markets are efficient, the operating profit cannot be much higher than the risk undertaken from investing in a ship. On the other hand, as shipping is subject to a myriad variables – a few of them beyond the realm of logical projection such as geo-political events or natural disasters – volatility in the shipping spot freight markets is notoriously gigantic (both VLCCs and capesize vessels in the last decade experienced spot rates ranging from $1,000 pd to $200,000 pd), ships prices can vary accordingly. There have been cases of ships that have doubled or trebled in value in a matter of a few short months, even – and, inversely there have been cases where ships have collapsed in value in a matter of weeks (actually, there has been a well-published Harvard Business School case study – to which we have contributed, whereby two sistership capesize vessels were sold a few months apart in 2008 at a price differential of more than $90 million. By timing the market decently, many a shipowner have made a fortune in the last decades by just buying and selling vessels at the right time.

The 2008 market correction saw a precipitous drop in asset prices. Many buyers hoped for vessel acquisitions at distressed prices – mostly from fire sales from shipping banks, but really only a small portion of vessels mortgaged with bad loans ever got to be sold cheaply. There was no doubt in the minds of many people that 2010 asset price levels were strong buying opportunities.

Once the markets normalized, 2012-2015 saw a tremendous interest in newbuilding vessels, which, by boom-year standards, were at competitive prices; and, of course, shipbuilders did their best to encourage more newbuilding activity by actually sharing the subsidy windfalls from their governments with international buyers of newbuilding ships.

Let’s say that a market recovery did not play out as expected and 2016, for the dry bulk market, saw one of the worst times on record; freight rates and asset prices just collapsed. As a matter of proportion, ten-year-old drybulk vessels were selling in early 2016 at twice their scrap value, while historically ships of that age would be expected to sell at approximately 5x their scrap value. Once again, 2016 was a screaming buying opportunity in the mind of many people, of buying “cheap ships”.

Fast forward two years later, drybulk asset prices are higher than the lows of 2010 and 2016; but, really, not exuberantly higher; and, definitely, no higher than the highs of 2013-2014. Yes, there have been cases of ships getting flipped at double their purchase price between the low and the high, but such evidence is limited to one-off deals, older tonnage, or transactions where the seller had to sell at any price.

The tanker market, the other main commodity shipping market that it’s prone to asset flipping, has experienced similar trends, only in a different sync cycle than dry bulk. Tankers actually are at a cycle low at present with the trade of crude oil being dislocated by OPEC’s production cuts and the boost of shale oil in the US. Tanker asset prices are low – so much so that an institutional investor recently sold a vintage VLCC for scrap – which was bought three years ago; sale was at a loss by our calculations, and much pre-maturely than the expectations of the tanker’s economic life. Making money on this cheap but vintage supertanker did not work out.

What has happened to the asset play game in commodity shipping? Is the game over? Freight rates still are fair and drybulk vessels generate positive cash flows; what would take to pull prices up from the depths of the 2016 crisis?

We wish we had a crystal ball on this, but we think that making money by flipping ships these days is not the “game” it was. The market is getting more complicated, more efficient and transparent, and more demanding; higher demands by all: bankers, charterers, operators, regulators, etc And, ships have been evolving, and they have to catch up with new regulations; it was ballast water treatment management last year, it’s emissions this year, likely it will be IoT and bunkering fuel in the next few years. And, likely many more factors to worry about.

And, cheap and plentiful financing leverage to lubricate the market to make purchasing of ships easier is only getting costlier and more complicated. And, lack of cheap leverage, among other things, has kept a lid on asset prices.

Not saying that asset play is dead; ships seem reasonably priced in today’s markets. But, asset players have to have access to capital and buy opportunistically fleets (not just a ship) when the timing is right (i.e. Angelicoussis and Ofer Groups in the past), and also have the flexibility for financial structuring (while Star Bulk sold have their capesize fleet (at a major loss) in 2016, now they are consolidating the market by paying in paper (shares) to acquire the Songa drybulk fleet and the Augustea Atlantica / York Capital tanker fleet). By buying and operating fleets, they give themselves the benefit of finding employment with established charterers, accessing the banks and capital, having an operating platform – if the asset play does not work out, they will have the capacity to sustain the cycle and go for operating profits.

Borrowing from a credit fund at 10% interest to play the asset game for one or two ships is like playing with the fire. Even worse if the asset player has to put 100% of the purchase money themselves.

Several shipowners tried to raise capital since the 2016 crisis based on the investment thesis that buying cheap ships pays off. We are aware of no institutional investor who actually paid much attention to the theme or even funded the project, since 2016, tempting the theme as it may have been. At least, some lessons have been learned on this matter from the past.

Still shipping is an exciting industry and there is money to be made. But for now, the asset play game is not the way to make money in shipping. At least not by playing the same game with the old rules…

Flipping is hard to do! Image credit: Karatzas Images

© 2013 – present Basil M Karatzas & Karatzas Marine Advisors & Co.  All Rights Reserved.

IMPORTANT DISCLAIMER:  Access to this blog signifies the reader’s irrevocable acceptance of this disclaimer. No part of this blog can be reproduced by any means and under any circumstances, whatsoever, in whole or in part, without proper attribution or the consent of the copyright and trademark holders of this website.Whilst every effort has been made to ensure that information herewithin has been received from sources believed to be reliable and such information is believed to be accurate at the time of publishing, no warranties or assurances whatsoever are made in reference to accuracy or completeness of said information, and no liability whatsoever will be accepted for taking or failing to take any action upon any information contained in any part of this website.  Thank you for the consideration.

 

Dry Bulk Ships: To Buy or Not To Buy

The dry bulk market had a great run from the fall of the last year until March this year when the BDI reached 1,338 points on March 29th.  While freight rates still have been hovering at just above break-even levels, the improvement of the market has been impressive in relative terms; freight rates have quadrupled in the last year, admittedly from abysmally low levels.

While still the freight improvement has not been strong enough to justify popping champagne bottles, it has worked miracles in terms of improving the mood and bringing soaring enthusiasm back in a market that was relentlessly bleeding cash for the last few years. The enthusiasm has been so strong that recent sale & purchase activity (s&p) has been the strongest in the last two years, while there are a couple of cases of shipowners doubling their money on ‘asset play’ transactions within the last year.

The market has given up some of its recent earnings as the BDI is now back to approximately 900 points, but the improved mood is still abundantly present. And, given that we are heading into the summer, a seasonally weak season for shipping, there have been some concerns on the direction of the market. And, now that the market seems to be taking a breather and there is some time for introspection, there is some head-scratching on the real reasons for the market bouncing back so strongly in the last year as fundamentals did not seem to justify such a strong (fourfold) freight improvement.  All in all, while the market is still decent and the mood is buoyant, one has to be more cautious at present.

Shipping asset prices have improved since last year when ships, especially when non-modern dry bulk ships were selling at a multiple of their scrap value, irrespective of quality and pedigree. Probably the “easy money” has been behind for those looking for an easy “asset play”, but shipping asset prices are still low by historical standards.  And, there has been serious interest for acquisitions of dry bulk shipping assets whether in the secondary or the newbuilding market.

But again, it’s hard for a buyer or investor to enter aggressively the market. Prices have doubled for a great deal of assets while the freight market barely covers their daily operating expenses. And, there are risks looking forward to justify an aggressive approach. Trade volumes are still anemic to imply a strong market recovery. And, shipbuilders are getting more desperate by the day at building up their orderbook. Lack of competitive shipping finance keeps a dumper on the market, but any export credit incentive or other catalyst would have a tremendous (even catastrophic) impact on the market.

While asset prices look tempting by historical standards, whether for tankers or dry bulk vessels, it’s hard making the argument that the market is in a full recovery swing and buying ships, whether for operating profits or for asset flipping in the future, can b a great strategy. The risks still lurking in the market cannot be ignored. And, in our opinion, the “irrational exuberance” we have seen earlier in the year make us believe that there is still lots of froth in the market.


The article was first published in Seatrade Maritime on June 6th, 2017 under the title “Dry Bulk Ships: To Buy or not to Buy“.


Great looking dry bulk vessel MV ‘Genco Pyrenees’ not making making (sailing in ballast). Recently photographed sailing upstream in Elbe in Hamburg. Image credit: Karatzas Images

© 2013 – present Basil M Karatzas & Karatzas Marine Advisors & Co.  All Rights Reserved.

IMPORTANT DISCLAIMER:  Access to this blog signifies the reader’s irrevocable acceptance of this disclaimer. No part of this blog can be reproduced by any means and under any circumstances, whatsoever, in whole or in part, without proper attribution or the consent of the copyright and trademark holders of this website.Whilst every effort has been made to ensure that information herewithin has been received from sources believed to be reliable and such information is believed to be accurate at the time of publishing, no warranties or assurances whatsoever are made in reference to accuracy or completeness of said information, and no liability whatsoever will be accepted for taking or failing to take any action upon any information contained in any part of this website.  Thank you for the consideration.